Translator: Mostafa Seif Checker: Hussain Laghabi Thank you, thank you beyond borders. What an idea, right? And when I think of limits, I think of rules, laws, and restrictions, and I think of parents, teachers, and supervisors, who hold us to account according to those limits. This is not a bad thing, if you are like me I need supervisors, I need someone to hold me accountable to do the right thing. But beyond borders is something different. I think of those leaders and those teachers and those supervisors and those parents, who inspire us to go beyond the call of duty to do more than is necessary, to do things not because they command us— but because we want to. I'd like to share with you what the research shows about how this happens, not just for people but for yourself as well. Here's the idea: How can we inspire people and ourselves to be self-motivated? In other words, it is called: "empowerment". You've heard that word before, right? Well, the managerial expression for empowerment is: "Do the work, just do it.
With fewer resources and in less time, you can be done." I'm talking about feeling empowered, that's a different thing. A sense of mastery occurs when you are self-motivated. Now, if you want to know if you feel empowered, or your child, student, or employee feels empowered, ask them three questions. If they answer yes to these three questions, they will feel empowered. And by the way, this is not based on common sense - it is based on research. But you have gone through such trials; So you will feel that it is based on logic. The first question: Can you do it? Albert Bandura calls it self-efficacy. Do you believe you can do it? Do you have enough time, knowledge and training to do what we ask you to do? If you answered yes, that is fine. The second question: Will this work? Do you believe that what we ask you to do - the process - will work? This is called an efficacy response.
It is the belief that the behavior will lead to the maximum outcome. By the way, that requires education. We have to show them the data, and we might show them some theory. We show them and teach them why this might work. I just used the word "education", and a little while ago I used the word "training." Is there a difference between the two? In primary school we call it education, in middle school we also call education, in secondary school we call it education and in university we call it higher education? Then when you go to work after that, what do you call it? Training. You have a training department - there must be teams. Well you know the difference, do you want your children to receive sex or training? And your children might answer the question with a different answer. Because you know that training means you do the work and you get results. This is powerful, really powerful. Have you ever heard of this word "internet training"? It's a contradiction, right? Training means that you attend work.
But internet training is like plastic cutlery with big shrimp, judicious documents and folk music! I mean, this can't work. Well, if your answer to the question is yes, then it will work. The third question: Is it worth it? So we took a practice question and an educational question, and now here's the impassioned question: Do you believe in results, this is about results. B.F. Skinner taught us this: “Choice by results.” Dale Carnegie quotes B.F. Skinner and said, “Since the day you were born, everything you did you did because you wanted the result of that action.” Results; Is it worth it? So you have to convince people that it's worth it. Now by the way, if your answer to those three questions is yes, then you feel competent, right? You feel competent to do an important job.
We've all had that feeling. And when you feel competent when you do an important job, the chance of your self-motivation is higher. You have tried it. There is no need for anyone to supervise you. Here's the challenge for you leaders and educators: How can you inspire people to feel competent? By giving them tips, comments, and appreciation. They show them that they are competent. Well, I have another word that begins with the letter C: choice, your common sense will tell you. When you believe that you have a sense of independence, a sense of being able to choose what to do, you feel more self-motivated. We also taught us that in his book: “Beyond Freedom and Dignity, ” back in 1971. Reading that book changed my life; Because I realize I'm limited by the consequences. But sometimes I don't feel tied down. When I work for a pleasant result, I feel good, I feel like I am working to get something. But when I work to avoid a bad consequence, I feel tied down. This is called negative reinforcement. So here's the challenge for you leaders: How can we motivate people to be success seekers rather than failure avoiders? On the first day of the introductory psychology course, - I am studying for two classes with six hundred students.
Perhaps some of you have attended that lesson and remember - I say on the first day: "How many of you sit here to avoid failure?" Eighty percent of those present raise their hands. Then I tell them, “Okay, thank you for coming, I know you're excited, but you're not here convinced. You often tell your friends, 'I have to go to class, I have to,' not, 'I have the ability to go to class, it's a chance!'" You often wake up to an alarm, not an opportunity.
It 's all about seeing you , your vision. It's your model. It's the way you communicate with others, and how you communicate with yourself. In her book Mindfulness, she said - And psychologists know That's - "When you realize the value of the choice , you get excited." You get excited. So the idea is to be calm, and think carefully for your own good. Be mindful of the choices you have. With yourself and others I have a fourth C word : community A strong word Psychologists know that social support is crucial People who understand what it means to be connected and what it means to relate to other people get excited and be happier I want to recite a poem, called "The Cake Thief" As I'm reciting this poem, there are only two characters in it: a man and a woman.
Put yourselves in their position. Be vigilant and think about the situation, and what you would do. Agree ? Let's go : One night, a woman was waiting at the airport for her flight. For several long hours, I got a book from an airport shop, and bought a bag full of cakes Then I found a place to sit. She was immersed in her book, but she saw a man beside her, and with all the audacity he had he took a cake or two from the sack in between. She tried to ignore him to avoid her anger. She continued reading, chewed the cake, and watched the clock as the cake thief reduced her stock of cakes. She was getting angrier as the minutes passed. Note: "If I hadn't been polite, I would have punched him." And for every cake I took, he took one too. And when there was only one left, I wondered what he would do. With a smile on his face, and a nervous laugh he took the last cake, split it in half and gave it one of the halves while eating the other half.
I snatched him from him and thought: "Wow! This man is so bold and rude, he didn't even show any gratitude." She had never felt such anger before. She felt relieved when she saw the call of her plane. She gathered her needs and went to the gate. Refusing to look back: to the ungrateful thief. She got on the plane and took her seat. Then she searched in the bag for her book , which was almost finished, and while searching for what she needed, she was astonished by the surprise, as she saw in front of her eyes a bag of her cakes.
"If it's Casey I'm here...," she said, agonizingly, "then the other cakes were his and he'd share with me." "I can't apologize now ." So, where were you from my words? Where were you ? Which side did you choose? Were you thinking independently? Or is it connected? I don't blame you if you think independently; We have grown up with that. Collaborators lag behind, however, and attention is focused on the selfish in trouble, on publicizing only our personal achievements, on independence. We are born in life to find ourselves dependent on others, and then very eager to become teenagers.
And then we become too old to play like children, and too young to do what adults do. ; So we will do what no one else does to assert our independence. Some of us get stuck in that thinking, and we get stuck deeply in it. I'll do my thing, I don't need you. That's not good. We need each other, we must support each other. We need the meaning of community. That culture of independence that we have we have to move beyond it to interdependence. Well then, four C words can ignite self-motivation and I think they can activate interest among people as well.
Let me tell you a story, to sum it all up together. It happened over sixty years ago, I remember it like yesterday. My parents asked me, "Scott, what do you think if I took drum lessons? Would you like to play drums?" truly ? I've been thinking about Paddy Rich and Gene Krupa. Most of you don't know those names, but they were drummers.
In those days, drums were placed at the front of the band. They had White Pearl drums, and I saw myself in that, and that was my vision. I had a vision in which I imagined the results, and this was my vision. Then I said, "Yes, I want to take drum lessons." The teacher brought his drum equipment to my side, and I didn't have a drum as good as this one. My parents bought me a modest drum at auction. And they said to me, "If you get better, if your teacher tells us that you are getting better , they will hold me accountable. If the teacher tells us that your level is getting better, we will buy you drums of a different kind.
Then drums of another kind and then another to complete the set." This was my vision, and it was a motive. Me to work: results. The teacher came in and showed me. This is how you play, with the left hand. That's how he played Buddy Rich with his left hand and his right hand. Then he would show me movements, like a movement called Flam Can you hear that in the back? good ? This is called a rimshot. He used to show me moves. I was only ten years old, remember? And when he saw me moves, I was amazed. He showed me that simple drum and he says: "Scott watch me watch this" and I practiced it and did it, I felt competent. He showed me the movement of the paradiddle and he said, "Listen...paradiddle...paradiddle." He says, "Go home and practice. Next week I want to see you do it." "That's a double paradiddle, we haven't practiced it yet!" I was really ahead; Because I was self-motivated.
I feel worthy. I was walking at Newburgh High School in Allentown, Pennsylvania, and I saw the music teacher saying, "I heard you're learning to play drums." I said, "Yes! I'm going up." He said, "You can join the band, you can be one of the drummers!" It was a good feeling, it was another vision. And then the teacher, - and it was tutoring by the way, two dollars, that was a long time ago - and he says, "Scott, are you ready to do the Drum Roll?" And I say, "Of course I'm ready for that." Then he says, "Watch that, Scott! Let's go! Watch this and I think a little, and I say, "Can you show me that again?" - "Scott, it's easy, watch me" "Now I want you to practice and next week I want to see you do it" and he comes back Next week he says, "What's up with the Drum Roll?" I hesitate and say, "I can do a paradiddle." He says, "That's a dip in your level. I want to see the Drum Roll." Week after week went by, now we're talking about anxiety.
We are now talking about indifference. We are now talking about learned helplessness. This is what psychologists call it. I remember walking into elementary school, and seeing the music teacher who said, "So, Scott, how are you? How's the drumming? " "Not good, I'm not good at Drum Roll." And he said, as adults do, "Don't say you can't ,." You can be anything you want, Scott." - "No, I can't do a Drum Roll. I've tried and I've tried, and I've kind of given up," he says, "Scott, when you feel like the motion is awkward, cut it. Cut it, do you make a motion?" paradiddle?” - “Yes!” - “Well what’s the second beat?” - "Two drums " - "Yeah, that's the Drum Roll , Scott Geller, it's two drums. So go home and practice and say, "Mama and Papa" - remember I was ten - "Say Papa and Mama." Papa and Mama...
It's the Drum Roll! My teacher came back the next week and said, "Well, Scott, I guess you can't do a Drum Roll." So I said, "Watch that." and he said, "Wow! How did you learn to do that?" I taught my teacher at the age of ten. “I forgot, I just used to do it,” he said. “I forgot it was two drums.” “You taught me how to do the Drum Roll, Scott.” There is a lesson here, we can always learn from each other. We need to have the humility to accept reactions, and the courage to speak up.